Faculty - Duke Eye Center

Faculty Portrait

R. Rand Allingham, MD

Professor of Ophthalmology

Chief, Glaucoma Service

Department / Division
Ophthalmology / Glaucoma Ophthalmology

DUMC 3802
Durham, NC 27710

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  • MD, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (Ohio), 1979


  • Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical Center (Virginia), 1984-1987


  • Glaucoma, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 1987-1989

Clinical Interests:
Glaucoma (including laser and conventional surgery), cataract surgery with emphasis on combined cataract and glaucoma, glaucoma implant surgery; research interests include new surgical approaches to glaucoma and the study of genetics in glaucoma and other inherited eye diseases

Research Interests:
Dr. Allingham has pursued both basic science and clinical research in the subspecialty of glaucoma. His major research interest is the study of genetic eye disorders, primarily the inherited glaucomas. The most common form of glaucoma (primary open-angle glaucoma or POAG) is believed to have a strong genetic component. He leads a large NIH funded study of which is directed at identifying the specific gene(s) responsible for glaucoma. Over 9,000 individuals have been enrolled in the Duke Glaucoma Genetics Project over the past 15 years. He has conducted studies of glaucoma worldwide including Iceland, Africa, Mexico, India, and the Philippines. Dr. Allingham's research group has identified the genetic location of several new genes associated with glaucoma. By understanding the genetic source of glaucoma it will be possible to develop new diagnostic and treatment approaches for this disease.

In addition to genetic causes of glaucoma, Dr. Allingham has been a lead investigator into the role of cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSF pressure) as a risk factor for glaucoma. CSF is the clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. In a study performed by researchers at Duke and the Mayo Clinic, he has reported that CSF pressure is lower in glaucoma patients. This finding has been confirmed in research studies performed in China and elsewhere. Now there is evidence that there may be inherited factors that affect CSF formation. If true this would be another inherited factor that alters risk for glaucoma.

In addition to these basic science research efforts into the glaucomas, he has had an on-going interest in the clinical management of glaucoma. They include 1) examination of various laser treatment modalities in glaucoma; 2) the tissue response to laser surgery; and 3) investigations into innovative surgical treatment strategies for glaucoma.


  • Abu-Amero, KK; Osman, EA; Mousa, A; Wheeler, J; Whigham, B; Allingham, RR; Hauser, MA; Al-Obeidan, SA. Screening of CYP1B1 and LTBP2 genes in Saudi families with primary congenital glaucoma: genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular Vision. 2011;17:2911-2919. Abstract

  • Asrani, S; Rosdahl, JA; Allingham, RR. Novel software strategy for glaucoma diagnosis: asymmetry analysis of retinal thickness. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2011;129:1205-1211. Abstract

  • Crooks, KR; Allingham, RR; Qin, X; Liu, Y; Gibson, JR; Santiago-Turla, C; Larocque-Abramson, KR; Del Bono, E; Challa, P; Herndon, LW; Akafo, S; Wiggs, JL; Schmidt, S; Hauser, MA. Genome-wide linkage scan for primary open angle glaucoma: influences of ancestry and age at diagnosis. PLoS One. 2011;6:e21967. Abstract

  • DeCroos, FC; Kondo, Y; Mordes, D; Lee, MR; Ahmad, S; Asrani, S; Allingham, RR; Olbrich, KC; Klitzman, B. In vitro fluid dynamics of the Ahmed glaucoma valve modified with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Current Eye Research. 2011;36:112-117. Abstract

  • Liu, Y; Allingham, RR. Molecular genetics in glaucoma. Experimental Eye Research. 2011;93:331-339. Abstract

  • Liu, Y; Gibson, J; Wheeler, J; Kwee, LC; Santiago-Turla, CM; Akafo, SK; Lichter, PR; Gaasterland, DE; Moroi, SE; Challa, P; Herndon, LW; Girkin, CA; Budenz, DL; Richards, JE; Allingham, RR; Hauser, MA. GALC deletions increase the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: the role of Mendelian variants in complex disease. PLoS One. 2011;6:e27134. Abstract

  • Liu, Y; Munro, D; Layfield, D; Dellinger, A; Walter, J; Peterson, K; Rickman, CB; Allingham, RR; Hauser, MA. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in normal human trabecular meshwork. Molecular Vision. 2011;17:885-893. Abstract

  • Whigham, BT; Williams, SE; Liu, Y; Rautenbach, RM; Carmichael, TR; Wheeler, J; Ziskind, A; Qin, X; Schmidt, S; Ramsay, M; Hauser, MA; Allingham, RR. Myocilin mutations in black South Africans with POAG. Molecular Vision. 2011;17:1064-1069. Abstract

  • Abu-Amero, KK; Osman, EA; Dewedar, AS; Schmidt, S; Allingham, RR; Al-Obeidan, SA. Analysis of LOXL1 polymorphisms in a Saudi Arabian population with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Molecular Vision. 2010;16:2805-2810. Abstract

  • Berdahl, JP; Allingham, RR. Intracranial pressure and glaucoma. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 2010;21:106-111. Abstract

  • Liu, W; Liu, Y; Qin, XJ; Schmidt, S; Hauser, MA; Allingham, RR. AQP1 and SLC4A10 as candidate genes for primary open-angle glaucoma. Molecular Vision. 2010;16:93-97. Abstract

  • Liu, Y; Qin, X; Schmidt, S; Allingham, RR; Hauser, MA. Association between chromosome 2p16.3 variants and glaucoma in populations of African descent. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2010;107:E61. Abstract

  • McDonald, KK; Abramson, K; Beltran, MA; Ramirez, MG; Alvarez, M; Ventura, A; Santiago-Turla, C; Schmidt, S; Hauser, MA; Allingham, RR. Myocilin and optineurin coding variants in Hispanics of Mexican descent with POAG. Journal of Human Genetics. 2010;55:697-700. Abstract

  • Williams, SE; Whigham, BT; Liu, Y; Carmichael, TR; Qin, X; Schmidt, S; Ramsay, M; Hauser, MA; Allingham, RR. Major LOXL1 risk allele is reversed in exfoliation glaucoma in a black South African population. Molecular Vision. 2010;16:705-712. Abstract

  • Allingham, RR; Liu, Y; Rhee, DJ. The genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma: a review. Experimental Eye Research. 2009;88:837-844. Abstract

  • Berdahl, JP; Ethier, CR; Allingham, RR. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and glaucomatous optic disc cupping. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2009;247:1289-1290. Abstract

  • Allingham, RR. Assessment of visual status of the Aeta, a hunter-gatherer population of the Philippines (an AOS thesis). Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 2008;106:240-251. Abstract

  • Liu, Y; Akafo, S; Santiago-Turla, C; Cohen, CS; Larocque-Abramson, KR; Qin, X; Herndon, LW; Challa, P; Schmidt, S; Hauser, MA; Allingham, RR. Optineurin coding variants in Ghanaian patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Molecular Vision. 2008;14:2367-2372. Abstract

  • Liu, Y; Schmidt, S; Qin, X; Gibson, J; Hutchins, K; Santiago-Turla, C; Wiggs, JL; Budenz, DL; Akafo, S; Challa, P; Herndon, LW; Hauser, MA; Allingham, RR. Lack of association between LOXL1 variants and primary open-angle glaucoma in three different populations. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2008;49:3465-3468. Abstract

  • Challa, P; Hauser, MA; Luna, CC; Freedman, SF; Pericak-Vance, M; Yang, J; McDonald, MT; Allingham, RR. Juvenile bilateral lens dislocation and glaucoma associated with a novel mutation in the fibrillin 1 gene. Molecular Vision. 2006;12:1009-1015. Abstract

  • Allingham, RR; Wiggs, JL; Hauser, ER; Larocque-Abramson, KR; Santiago-Turla, C; Broomer, B; Del Bono, EA; Graham, FL; Haines, JL; Pericak-Vance, MA; Hauser, MA. Early adult-onset POAG linked to 15q11-13 using ordered subset analysis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2005;46:2002-2005. Abstract

  • Challa, P; Herndon, LW; Hauser, MA; Broomer, BW; Pericak-Vance, MA; Ababio-Danso, B; Allingham, RR. Prevalence of myocilin mutations in adults with primary open-angle glaucoma in Ghana, West Africa. Journal of Glaucoma. 2002;11:416-420. Abstract

  • Allingham, RR; Loftsdottir, M; Gottfredsdottir, MS; Thorgeirsson, E; Jonasson, F; Sverisson, T; Hodge, WG; Damji, KF; Stefánsson, E. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in Icelandic families. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2001;85:702-707. Abstract

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